Identify sourcesof ethical problems

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identify sourcesof ethical problems

Optimizing logistics, detecting fraud, composing art, conducting research, providing translations: intelligent machine systems are transforming our lives for the better. As these systems become more capable, our world becomes more efficient and consequently richer. Tech giants such as Alphabet, Amazon, Facebook, IBM and Microsoft — as well as individuals like Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk — believe that now is the right time to talk about the nearly boundless landscape of artificial intelligence.

In many ways, this is just as much a new frontier for ethics and risk assessment as it is for emerging technology. So which issues and conversations keep AI experts up at night?

The hierarchy of labour is concerned primarily with automation. Look at trucking: it currently employs millions of individuals in the United States alone. But on the other hand, if we consider the lower risk of accidents, self-driving trucks seem like an ethical choice. The same scenario could happen to office workers, as well as to the majority of the workforce in developed countries. This is where we come to the question of how we are going to spend our time.

Most people still rely on selling their time to have enough income to sustain themselves and their families. We can only hope that this opportunity will enable people to find meaning in non-labour activities, such as caring for their families, engaging with their communities and learning new ways to contribute to human society.

If we succeed with the transition, one day we might look back and think that it was barbaric that human beings were required to sell the majority of their waking time just to be able to live.

Our economic system is based on compensation for contribution to the economy, often assessed using an hourly wage. The majority of companies are still dependent on hourly work when it comes to products and services. But by using artificial intelligence, a company can drastically cut down on relying on the human workforce, and this means that revenues will go to fewer people.

Consequently, individuals who have ownership in AI-driven companies will make all the money. We are already seeing a widening wealth gap, where start-up founders take home a large portion of the economic surplus they create. Inroughly the same revenues were generated by the three biggest companies in Detroit and the three biggest companies in Silicon Valley Artificially intelligent bots are becoming better and better at modelling human conversation and relationships.

Ina bot named Eugene Goostman won the Turing Challenge for the first time. In this challenge, human raters used text input to chat with an unknown entity, then guessed whether they had been chatting with a human or a machine. Eugene Goostman fooled more than half of the human raters into thinking they had been talking to a human being.

This milestone is only the start of an age where we will frequently interact with machines as if they are humans; whether in customer service or sales. While humans are limited in the attention and kindness that they can expend on another person, artificial bots can channel virtually unlimited resources into building relationships.

Even though not many of us are aware of this, we are already witnesses to how machines can trigger the reward centres in the human brain.During these challenging times, we guarantee we will work tirelessly to support you.

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Updated: March 29, References. Solving ethical issues can be a complex process, and the steps you'll need to take will vary slightly depending on the circumstances. In general, though, you'll need to collect as much information as possible, review your options, and commit to the best possible plan of action. Log in Facebook Loading Google Loading Civic Loading No account yet?

identify sourcesof ethical problems

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This article has also been viewed 44, times.Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with morality and how it shapes behavior. Different branches of the study of ethics look at where our views of morality come from and how they shape our everyday lives. There are four major ethical theories: deontology or dutyutilitarianism, rights, and virtue. Each one of these theories looks at our ethical behavior in different ways. The theory of deontology states that when we have to make ethical decisions, our first thoughts are on our duties and obligations.

According to this theory, what we believe our duties are will drive how we act in different situations. For example, we may make a decision based on following the law or based on our loyalty toward friends or family members. U tilitarianism. According to the theory of utilitarianism, people choose their actions based on how their decisions will benefit the most people.

You make a decision that will be best for everyone involved. There are two sides to this theory. Act utilitarianism says you will make decisions based on helping others, while rule utilitarianism says you will act out of fairness.

R ights. The rights theory of ethics says that people make decisions based on the rights that their society agrees to. What the majority of people in that society believes is important will drive decisions. For example, the rights we Americans have in our Constitution should be factors in our decision-making according to this theory. Our rights, such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion, should help us decide how to behave.

V irtue. The way someone lives his or her life can explain any ethical decision according to this theory. For example, a person who lies and cheats to get ahead in life probably makes decisions based on advancing his or her own interests according to the virtue theory.

The virtue theory puts people in boxes based on their reputations at one point in time. C onsequential Ethics. These four theories fall into one of two categories.This article throws light on the seven major issues faced by human resource, i. HR professionals are likely to face maximum ethical dilemmas in the areas of hiring of employees.

Discovery that an employee who has been with the organisation for some time, is skilled and has established a successful record, had lied about his educational credentials. Cash and incentive plans include issues like basic salaries, annual increments or incentives, executive perquisites and long term incentive plans:. HR managers have to justify a higher level of basic salaries or higher level of percentage increase than the competitors to retain some employees.

In some situations, where the increase is larger than normal they have to elevate some positions to higher grades. This situation is particularly true in case of top management executives. The fear of losing some outstanding executives, the HR managers is forced to give higher incentives to them than what the individuals actually deserve. In the name of executive perquisites, sometimes excesses are often committed, the ethical burden of which falls on the HR managers.

Sometimes the costs of these perquisites are out of proportion to the value added. For example, the CEO of a loss making company buys a Mercedes for his personal use or wants a swimming pool built at his residence. Long term incentive Plans. Long term incentive plans are to be drawn by the HR managers in consultation with the CEO and an external consultant. Ethical issues arise when the HR manager is put to pressure to favour top executive interests over the interests of the other employees and the investors.

A framework of laws and regulations has been evolved to avoid the practices of treatment of employees on the basis of their caste, sex, religion, disability, age etc. No organisation can openly practice any discriminatory policies, with regard to selection, training, development, appraisal etc.

A demanding ethical challenge arises when there is pressure on the HR manager to protect the firm or an individual at the expense of someone belonging to the group which is being discriminated against. Ethics should be the basis of performance evaluation.

Highly ethical performance appraisal demands that there should be an honest assessment of the performance and steps should be taken to improve the effectiveness of employees. However, HR managers, sometimes, face the dilemma of assigning higher rates to employees who are not deserving them; based on some unrelated factors eg.

Some employees are, however, given low rates, despite their excellent performance on the basis of factor like caste, religion or not being loyal to the appraiser. The private life of an employee which is not affecting his professional life should be free from intrusive and unwarranted actions. Close circuit cameras, tapping the phones, reading the computer files of employees etc.

AIDS has become a public health problem. HR managers are faced with two issues: Whether all the new employees should be subject to AIDS test and what treatment should be melted out to an employee who is affected with the disease. It is however generally understood that since AIDS cannot be contracted by casual and normal workplace contract, employees with this illness should not be discriminated against and they should be allowed to perform jobs for which they are qualified. Whistle blowing refers to a public disclosure by former or current employees of any illegal, immoral or illegitimate practices involving their employers.

Generally, employees are not expected to speak against their employers, because their first loyalty in towards the organisation for which they work. However, if the situation is such that some act of the organisation can cause considerable harm to the society, it may become obligatory to blow the Whistle.

The HR manager is in the dilemma how to solve this issue between the opponents and defenders of whistle blowing. Industrial work is often hazardous to the safety and health of the employees. Legislations have been created making it mandatory on the organisations and managers to compensate the victims of occupational hazards. Ethical dilemmas of HR managers arise when the justice is denied to the victims by the organisation.

Restructuring of the organisations often result in layoffs and retrenchments. This is not unethical, if it is conducted in an atmosphere of fairness and equity and with the interests of the affected employees in mind. If the restructuring company requires closing of the plant, the process by which the plant is chosen, how the news is to be communicated and the time frame for completing the layoffs is ethically important.Today in western societies more people are employed collecting, handling and distributing information than in any other occupation.

Millions of computers inhabit the earth and many millions of miles of optical fiber, wire and air waves link people, their computers and the vast array of information handling devices together. Our society is truly an information society, our time an information age. The question before us now is whether the kind of society being created is the one we want. It is a question that should especially concern those of us in the MIS community for we are in the forefront of creating this new society.

There are many unique challenges we face in this age of information. They stem from the nature of information itself. Information is the means through which the minds expands and increases its capacity to achieve its goals, often as the result of an input from another mind. Thus, information forms the intellectual capital from which human beings craft their lives and secure dignity. However, the building of intellectual capital is vulnerable in many ways. For example, people's intellectual capital is impaired whenever they lose their personal information without being compensated for it, when they are precluded access to information which is of value to them, when they have revealed information they hold intimate, or when they find out that the information upon which their living depends is in error.

What Are the Four Major Ethical Theories?

The social contract among people in the information age must deal with these threats to human dignity. The ethical issues involved are many and varied, however, it is helpful to focus on just four.

identify sourcesof ethical problems

These may be summarized by means of an acronym -- PAPA. P rivacy: What information about one's self or one's associations must a person reveal to others, under what conditions and with what safeguards? What things can people keep to themselves and not be forced to reveal to others? A ccuracy: Who is responsible for the authenticity, fidelity and accuracy of information?

Similarly, who is to be held accountable for errors in information and how is the injured party to be made whole? P roperty: Who owns information? What are the just and fair prices for its exchange? Who owns the channels, especially the airways, through which information is transmitted? How should access to this scarce resource be allocated?

A ccessibility: What information does a person or an organization have a right or a privilege to obtain, under what conditions and with what safeguards?

Privacy What information should one be required to divulge about one's self to others? Under what conditions? What information should one be able to keep strictly to one's self? These are among the questions that a concern for privacy raises. Today more than ever cautious citizens must be asking these questions.

Two forces threaten our privacy. One is the growth of information technology, with its enhanced capacity for surveillance, communication, computation, storage, and retrieval. A second, and more insidious threat, is the increased value of information in decision-making. Information is increasingly valuable to policy makers; they covet it even if acquiring it invades another's privacy.

A case in point is the situation that occurred a few years ago in Florida. The Florida legislature believed that the state's building codes might be too stringent and that, as a result, the taxpayers were burdened by paying for buildings which were underutilized.

Several studies were commissioned. In one study at the Tallahassee Community College, monitors were stationed at least one day a week in every bathroom. Every 15 seconds, the monitor observed the usage of the toilets, mirrors, sinks and other facilities and recorded them on a form.

identify sourcesof ethical problems

This data was subsequently entered into a data base for further analyses.We use cookies to improve your experience on our website. By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our updated Cookie Notice.

Optimizing logistics, detecting fraud, composing art, conducting research, providing translations: intelligent machine systems are transforming our lives for the better. As these systems become more capable, our world becomes more efficient and consequently richer.

What are the Most Common Ethics Issues?

Tech giants such as Alphabet, Amazon, Facebook, IBM and Microsoft — as well as individuals like Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk — believe that now is the right time to talk about the nearly boundless landscape of artificial intelligence.

In many ways, this is just as much a new frontier for ethics and risk assessment as it is for emerging technology. So which issues and conversations keep AI experts up at night? The hierarchy of labour is concerned primarily with automation. Look at trucking: it currently employs millions of individuals in the United States alone. But on the other hand, if we consider the lower risk of accidents, self-driving trucks seem like an ethical choice.

Framework for resolving ethical problems

The same scenario could happen to office workers, as well as to the majority of the workforce in developed countries. This is where we come to the question of how we are going to spend our time. Most people still rely on selling their time to have enough income to sustain themselves and their families.

We can only hope that this opportunity will enable people to find meaning in non-labour activities, such as caring for their families, engaging with their communities and learning new ways to contribute to human society. If we succeed with the transition, one day we might look back and think that it was barbaric that human beings were required to sell the majority of their waking time just to be able to live.

Our economic system is based on compensation for contribution to the economy, often assessed using an hourly wage. The majority of companies are still dependent on hourly work when it comes to products and services. But by using artificial intelligence, a company can drastically cut down on relying on the human workforce, and this means that revenues will go to fewer people.

Consequently, individuals who have ownership in AI-driven companies will make all the money.

These are the 9 Major Ethical Issues in Psychology

We are already seeing a widening wealth gap, where start-up founders take home a large portion of the economic surplus they create. Inroughly the same revenues were generated by the three biggest companies in Detroit and the three biggest companies in Silicon Valley Artificially intelligent bots are becoming better and better at modelling human conversation and relationships.

Ina bot named Eugene Goostman won the Turing Challenge for the first time. In this challenge, human raters used text input to chat with an unknown entity, then guessed whether they had been chatting with a human or a machine. Eugene Goostman fooled more than half of the human raters into thinking they had been talking to a human being. This milestone is only the start of an age where we will frequently interact with machines as if they are humans; whether in customer service or sales.

While humans are limited in the attention and kindness that they can expend on another person, artificial bots can channel virtually unlimited resources into building relationships. Even though not many of us are aware of this, we are already witnesses to how machines can trigger the reward centres in the human brain. Just look at click-bait headlines and video games. This and other methods are used to make numerous video and mobile games become addictive. Tech addiction is the new frontier of human dependency.

On the other hand, maybe we can think of a different use for software, which has already become effective at directing human attention and triggering certain actions. When used right, this could evolve into an opportunity to nudge society towards more beneficial behavior. However, in the wrong hands it could prove detrimental. Systems usually have a training phase in which they "learn" to detect the right patterns and act according to their input.A business manager is the point person between boards of directors and employees, so she can sometimes find herself in ethically delicate situations when these two sides conflict.

Dealing with everyone in a workplace in a fair and evenhanded manner can be a challenge, particularly when others are not making the same effort to be reasonable. The question of ethics in business has been formalized in the discipline of corporate social responsibility, or CSR.

This field examines ways that large corporations are responsible to their communities and to the environment in ways that don't fall within the dictates of a free-market profit system.

The growing prevalence of CSR within the corporate environment has heightened many managers' awareness of ethical issues and of their responsibility to be conversant with them and able to make proper decisions. Managers need to be confident about their decisions, because they will inevitably be at odds with someone else's preferences much of the time. Questions of discrimination are common in the workplace, and managers are often called upon to deal with them.

Historical discrimination on the basis of race, ethnic origin, gender or sexual orientation has made many individuals sensitive to these problems. Accusations or lawsuits charging discrimination are serious. They may be brought against a company as a whole or a manager as an individual.

Good managers make proactive efforts to educate themselves about discrimination and make every effort to avoid discriminating against others, basing their hiring and promotion decisions solely on experience, ability and other relevant factors. Fraud is a serious ethical breach in the workplace. A manager who is made aware of fraudulent activities within the workplace is ethically required to report this to the relevant authorities.

This can be particularly awkward if the fraud is being perpetrated by the manager's employers. Becoming a whistleblower is not what most managers want to do, but it has to be done if managers are serious about maintaining and promoting an honest and fair workplace. Fraud may also be perpetrated by employees and by managers themselves. Marketing is the practice of educating the public about the products or services offered by a business and of convincing the public of the value of these products and services.

Because of the huge financial incentive that lies behind effective marketing, there is a strong motive to engage in practices that might be considered dishonest. Managers who work in a marketing environment may be asked to engage in marketing and publicity activities that aren't percent transparent; for example, they might have to develop advertisements that misrepresent a product or hide its negative health effects.

This presents a clear ethical dilemma for a conscientious manager.


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