Indian literature refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until and in the Republic of India thereafter. The Republic of India has 22 officially recognized languages. The earliest works of Indian literature were orally transmitted.
Sanskrit literature begins with the oral literature of the Rig Veda a collection of literature dating to the period — BCE. The Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata were subsequently codified and appeared towards the end of the 2nd millennium BCE.
In the medieval period, literature in Kannada and Telugu appeared in the 6th and 11th centuries respectively. Thereafter literature in various dialects of HindiPersian and Urdu began to appear as well. In contemporary Indian literature, there are two major literary awards; these are the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship and the Jnanpith Award.
Examples of early works written in Vedic Sanskrit include,the core Vedas and Upanishads. Other examples include the Sulba Sutraswhich are some of the earliest texts on geometry. The Laws of Manu is a famous text in Hinduism. Later poetic works include Geeta Govinda by Jayadeva.Class 6 l odia medium l Rajaniti bigyan l chapter 2 l Rastra l Rajanitibigyan l by K Katual l
Some other famous works are Chanakya 's Arthashastra and Vatsyayana 's Kamasutra. In Jainismmany Svetambara works were written in Maharashtri. The Pali Canon is mostly of Indian origin. Later Pali literature however was mostly produced outside of the mainland Indian subcontinentparticularly in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia.
Pali literature includes Buddhist philosophical works, poetry and some grammatical works. The rest of the corpus of Sangam literature deals with human relationship and emotions. Sangam literature deals with emotional and material topics such as love, war, governance, trade and bereavement. The Charyapadas are often cited as the earliest example of Assamese literature. The Charyapadas are Buddhist songs composed in the 8th to 12th centuries.
These writings bear similarities to Oriya and Bengali languages as well. The phonological and morphological traits of these songs, some of which are extant, bear very strong resemblance to Assamese. After the Charyapadas, the period may again be split into a Pre-Vaishnavite and b Vaishnavite sub-periods. But the most well-known poet of the Pre-Vaishnavite sub period is Madhav Kandaliwho rendered Valmiki's Ramayana into Assamese verse Kotha Ramayana11th century under the patronage of Mahamanikya, a Kachari king of Jayantapura.
His main disciples Madhabdev and Damodardev followed in his footsteps, and enriched Assamese literary world with their own contributions. Damodardev's disciple Bhattadev is acknowledged as the first Indian prose writer, who introduced the unique prose writing style in Assamese.
This book was officially released in New Delhi on 24 Nov by then President of India Dr Zakir Hussain in commemoration of the birth centenary celebration of doyen of Assamese literature Lakshminath Bezbaroa. The first evidence of Bengali literature is known as Charyapada or Charyageeti, which were Buddhist hymns from the 8th century. Charyapada is in the oldest known written form of Bengali. The most internationally famous Bengali writer is Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagorewho received the Nobel Prize for Literature in for his work "Gitanjali".
He was the first Asian who won the Nobel Prize. Rabindranath has written enormous amount of poems, songs, essays, novels, plays and short stories.Download B. A 1st year, 2nd year and Final year notes from below provided links. The duration of a B. Computer Science is 3 years, which is divided into 6 semesters.
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Please sir, syllabus badal gaya hai PDF or notes. Please please please sir. Please send me BA 2nd year history notes in hindi. Mara email par send kana? Bhi indian geography ka pdf send karo b.They constitute a majority in the eastern coastal state of Odishawith significant minority populations in Andhra PradeshChhattisgarhJharkhand and West Bengal.
The earliest Odias were called Odra or Kalingawhich later on became Utkal. The word Odia has mentions in epics like the Mahabharata. The Odras are mentioned as one of the peoples that fought in the Mahabharata.
Pali literature calls them Oddakas. Ptolemy and Pliny the Elder also refer to the Oretas who inhabit India's eastern coast. The modern term Odia dates from the 15th century when it was used by the medieval Muslim chroniclers and adopted by the Gajapati kings of Odisha. The Odias are distinguished by their ethnocultural customs as well as the use of the Odia language. Odisha's relative isolation and the lack of any discernible outside influence has contributed towards preserving a social and religious structure that has disappeared from most of North India.
According to Mahabharata Kalinga extended from the mouth of Ganga in north to the mouth of Godavari in south. During 4th Century, Mahapadma Nanda conquered Kalinga. During rule of AshokaKalinga was annexed as part of Maurya Empire. During 2nd century BCE, Kharavela emerged as powerful ruler. He defeated several kings in North and South India.
Harshavardhana of Kannauj conquered Odisha in 7th century. Bhauma-Kara dynasty ruled Odisha from 8th to 10th century followed by Keshari dynasty from 9th to 12th century. Odisha remained an independent regional power till the early 16th century A.
It was conquered by the Mughals under Akbar in and was thereafter subject to a succession of Mughal and Maratha rule before finally falling to the British in the year Hard impositions of taxes by the British, administrative malpractices by the pro British Bengali landlords or officials and stripping the rights of local people along with suppression of native landlords in Odisha led to India's first  reorganized revolt against the British in the year popularly known as Paika Bidroh or rebellion.
Battle worthy leaders like Jayi Rajaguru and Buxi Jagabandhu along with the Paikas and Kondh tribal conscripts fought gallantly against the British and won for brief time declaring the independence from the British authority.
A series of rebellions and uprisings led by numerous brave Odias like Tapang rebellionBanapur rebellionSambalpur uprising —62Ghumsur Kondh uprisingKondh Rebellion —55Bhuyan uprisingRanapur Praja Revolt —38etc.This page displays our daily pack of free expert tips. The markets are pro-pundit analysed to make your bet standout. Our predictions are available on all reknowned sports betting sites. If you are happy with the free tips and in need of more, check out our PREMIUM CLUB.
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Buy sticky labels and print them out with your details to speed up entries. With stamps, the only difference between first-class and second-class is that with first, Royal Mail aims to deliver your letter or packet the next working day. It aims to deliver second-class by the third working day.
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The temptation's to set up two Facebook accounts, yet it's against Facebook's rules to have two, and a few MoneySavers have been banned for this. It's hard to search for competitions on Facebook, so try searching for 'Facebook' on our Competitions board. Snap-sharing networks Instagram and Pinterest are buzzing with contests. Prizes can be tasty, as Elmo34 found:I entered a photo for a Very.
They messaged me and it arrived the next day. Also search for 'Instagram' on our Competitions board. Before entering, search for other entries with the same hashtag to ensure yours stands out from the crowd.
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And don't forget to post on the I won. To help sort 'you're a winner' messages from spam, set up rules to automatically filter winning emails into a special folder.JSB develops statistical and computational methods motivated by important questions in biomedical sciences and a plethora of genomic and health related data. ASA DataFestTM 2017 at UCLA happened May 5 - 7. Students in competing teams from 7 universities analyzed a complex dataset for prizes, fame and glory. Pictured are the members of the Center for Statistical Research in Computational Biology (CSRCB) research group.
Click on this photo to see the new CSRCB website. Statisticians contribute to society in many ways, from protecting endangered species and managing the impacts of climate change to making medicines more effective and reducing hunger and disease. The ways in which statisticians make the world a better place are vast. Careers in statistics are fun. The field is filled with interesting opportunities and dynamic people.
Statistics is a science. It involves asking questions about the world and finding answers to them in a scientific way. If you are curious about how things work, statistics is a career that will keep your curiosity piqued and your brain engaged. Want to find out more about how statistics shapes the world around us. Demand for statisticians is growing, and so are their salaries.
Together, the Learning Network and ASA will select an infographic from The New York Times, strip it of key information, and invite you to use math, statistics and critical thinking to answer questions about what you see.
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After playing catch-up to evolve their approach to reach Millennials, marketers will move more quickly in 2017 to connect with Generation Z. Gen Z is coming of age in a post-linear digital world.
Knowledge about everything is at their fingertips and on demand whenever they want it. These shifts will help drive brand growth and increase the power of digital as a channel for brands to meaningfully connect with this audience.
Connectivity has a fundamental influence on how people consume media and make brand choices.
It gives brands the opportunity to increase reach exponentially. Marketers need to better meet the personal expectations of their consumers across different touchpoints.
The consumer journey has changed dramatically in recent years. Different types of consumers take different paths to purchase, and each use the internet in their own way. Trends in Europe, for example show that consumers pass from social, to brand-owned, to offline touchpoints throughout the consumer journey. But in emerging markets there is a far greater preference to interact with brands on social at all stages. These differences create big challenges for channel owners, forced to play multiple roles and juggle numerous requests.
And when comparing traditional digital touchpoints with mobile touchpoints marketers are faced with a greater risk of delivering an inconsistent brand experience. Marketers should also be aware of younger consumers who have grown up in a connected world. This is a good indication of the thinking required to align touchpoints into a single view, but true consistency will require considerable time and investment, and for many established brands, this will be a longer-term focus on company structure and data management.
Marketers will continue to pull out all the stops to counter declining ad receptivity. Get ready for more native content, short and long form video, branded filters, and emoji and PR stunts.
However some of these formats are isolated, not shareable. Marketers will also closely monitor effectiveness as studies start to show which formats consumers find annoying and intrusive, particularly on mobile. These advancements create new challenges for marketers. Far from a controlled consumer view of a brand (TV, outdoor, instore), marketers will face multiplatform, multi-device, in and out of walled gardens, all differently experienced by every consumer.
Geotargeting will be seen as a commercial opportunity: KFC has used Snapchat geofilters instore, and Snapchat itself is using geofilters to let people know where to find a Snapbot vending booth.
We will see more sequential content as marketers consider using retargeting for a more strategic and persuasive catenation of consumer messages. Consumers will stop seeing ads for a mattress they searched for, and bought, two weeks earlier.
Marketers will try to introduce emotion into this (supposedly) highly rational, data-driven ecosystem as a point of difference, and to create a longer term bond with the consumer. However, marketers will start to expect consistent metrics that they can compare, despite being in permanent beta. Done poorly, this targeting can be intrusive, creepy, off-point and ineffective.
In 2017, marketers will focus on finding the right balance between precision and intrusion. Advertisers and their agencies will align on the components of effective targeting based on brand affinity, interests and the appropriate demographics. Most marketers now understand that post-purchase targeting misses the opportunity to influence the consumer before they have decided on a brand.
Effective targeting will successfully harmonize mid-cycle path to purchase variables with the requisite interest-based and demographic variables, and empower advertisers to identify the most addressable audiences for media activation. This shift in approach will help marketers and their agencies focus on brand effectiveness from the moment the media begins.